A, type and profile
In the electric bicycle market, is the most commonly used lead-acid maintenance-free batteries, using glass fiber type of AGM battery diaphragm adsorption technology, and the colloid electrolyte technology of colloidal GEL type battery.
Working principle of lead-acid batteries is in the lead battery anode (PbO2) and cathode (Pb) to the electrolyte (dilute sulphuric acid), between two poles produce 2 v power. Discharge will dilute sulphuric acid is the chemical changes such as the Yin, the active substances react on the anode plate, generate new compounds "lead sulfate. Through the discharge acid composition is released from the electrolyte, discharge the longer, the thin sulfuric acid concentration. Consumed proportional to the discharge of the ingredients, as long as the measured concentration of sulfuric acid in the electrolyte, which measure the proportion, can discharge or residual battery. Charging when discharge is a chemical change in the anode, cathode plate produced by the lead sulfate can be decomposed when charging back into sulfuric acid, lead and lead oxide, so the battery electrolyte concentration gradually increased, in which the proportion of the electrolyte, and back to the front of the discharge concentration gradually, these changes show the active material of battery is restored to the state of the power supply again, when the poles of the reduction of lead sulfate original active substances, which is equal to the end of charging, and the cathode plate will generate hydrogen, anode produces oxygen, charging to final stage, the current used in almost all the electrolysis of water, thus the electrolyte will reduce, at this point shall be supplemented by pure water.
Type AGM battery is filled with dilute sulphuric acid, dilute sulphuric acid is absorbed in the superfine fiber glass partition and plate, almost no flow electro-hydraulic. Sells on the market of electric bicycle batteries are mostly type AGM batteries.
GEL type GEL battery is not free electro-hydraulic after GEL electrolyte, acid leakage probability than before a battery is much less; The perfusion 10 to 15% more than dilute sulphuric acid, water loss, so the gel battery will not failure caused by water loss; Colloidal injection increased the strength of the plate, to protect the plate, makes up the defect of the clapboard in acid shrinkage, reduce the assembly pressure is not obvious is one of the reasons why it has extended battery life; Gel filled the space between the plate and plate, reduce the battery internal resistance, charging accept ability can improve. So the gel battery over discharge, shan ability and low temperature type filling put performance are better than AGM battery is superior; The consistency of the gel battery is far better than the similar type AGM battery. Domestic has batch production of colloid has the following four: gas phase rubber, organic silicon polymer, silicon sol, mixed sol gel.
Working principle of lithium-ion battery is: when the battery is being charged, the anode material of lithium, off through the diaphragm into the anode graphite; Battery discharge, lithium ion and take off from the negative electrode of graphite, back in the anode material through the diaphragm. Over charge and discharge of the lithium ion of embedding and emerge from the positive and negative.
Lithium ion battery is a secondary battery, because it has a high energy density, large current charge and discharge, no memory effect, low cost of raw materials, environmentally friendly, and many other advantages, so after sales increased rapidly year by year, the future will be the winners in the secondary battery. Since the 1990 s since the advent of button battery in the electronic products, mobile phones, DC type digital products in the lithium battery, also applied to electric bicycle. But the lithium ion battery costs accounted for a third to half of the cost of electric vehicles, far greater than the proportion of lead-acid battery in the vehicle. And due to the high specific energy, lithium battery materials, poor stability, lithium batteries prone to security issues. With the development of the technology mature lithium ion battery will become the development trend of high quality electric vehicles.
Second, the key points of the choose and buy of the battery
AGM battery has the advantages of low cost, large discharge current, but there is a narrow temperature range, the limitation of water loss and thermal runaway battery; The GEL battery is high cost, but it has stable performance, wide working temperature range, resistance to overcharge, over discharge, long life and other advantages.
Due to the electric bicycle battery in most cases belong to the high discharge current, deep cycle, therefore, electric bicycle batteries is more suitable for gel battery. Gel battery with a strong resistance to discharge capacity and strong ability to electro-hydraulic preservation, avoid the influence of a discharge of battery, as well as the thermal runaway phenomenon due to battery water loss.
All kinds of brand lead-acid battery charging characteristics of the basic same, but because of each manufacturer battery materials formula, such as the electrolyte concentration and content are different, the charging voltage have some differences, therefore, strictly speaking, should according to the specific requirements of the battery manufacturer to determine the battery charging voltage, otherwise easy to cause improper use of the battery.
Electric bicycle motor output power to match with the power of the battery, so want to extend the service life of batteries, electric bicycle motor power is less than the rated power of the battery, as far as possible to avoid the battery long term work under full load and overload conditions.
Third, the rational use of the battery
Batteries in series, if the battery internal resistance, in the process of charging and discharging voltage of the battery will be inconsistent, it will eventually cause the whole owe charging and premature failure of the battery. So on electric bikes, battery equalization consistency has a considerable effect on the service life of the battery. For consumers, how to reasonably use, will cause certain influence to the balance of battery consistency, which affects the service life of batteries. According to the study of batteries for years and the actual use, advised consumers to adopt the following methods reasonably use batteries.
(1) electric car ride speed: 20 to 25 km/h.
(2) distance: 10 to 30 km/day, discharge depth less than or equal to 70% (once every 2 months for deep discharge).
(3) charging frequency: once a day.
(4) capacity: single ride (can carry a children under the age of 10 a).
According to the above method, the quality can reach better electric bicycle in a normal USES 3-4 years, even five years, and the battery can use about a year and a half. The battery discharge depth is shallow, the longer the battery cycle life, the longer the cycle of the battery. Accordingly, consumer is generally believed to charge for a cycle point of view is wrong, to extend battery life for their own use, it must always make a battery in the fully charged state, long kui electrical state, the battery negative plate of salinization extremely easily, cause the loss of battery capacity, affect the service life of the battery.
Fourth, the maintenance of batteries
Qualified electric moped battery after battery manufacturer factory, battery life and performance depends in part on the use and maintenance of consumers.
(1) the charger and battery matching.
Electric moped battery is bad, not bad, shows the importance of the charger and battery matching, there are two things: one is the new charger itself and the parameters of the battery manufacturer to provide does not match, the second is the poor quality of components of the charger itself, started to use as is match, as consumers charge and discharge cycle is used, the charger itself due to temperature rising, components ageing, produce the charging voltage and current drift, damaged cells.
(2), timely supplementary electricity often.
Consumers to the operating instructions of the nominal cycle life usually have a misunderstanding, think to charge, the battery life will reduce the time, so every time for the protection of the battery power consumption to controller voltage of 31.5 V to supply electricity, instead it not only protect the battery, and shorten the battery life. So warn broad customer, where possible, should be timely to add battery.
(3) it is forbidden to light show under-voltage cases continue to ride. Some consumer ride on the way, after the indicator light shows the status of the undervoltage, take a rest and then ride a way, to the harm of the battery, so serious over discharge can make battery saline or lead generation dendritic, make the battery short-circuit, affect the life.
(4) electric moped just starting, climbing, overload should try to help.
(5) rainy day riding, avoid wet switches and connectors, to prevent leakage.